OLD ASSESSMENT: TESL Scenario Report (RECEIVED A DISTINCTION)

7152 Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL)

Assessment 2: Scenario Report (Option 1: 1500 words)
An action plan with reccommendations based on critical reflection and research

U3071645 Kimberly Hall

 

Table of Contents

Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4 Intercultural Understanding …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4

Considerations & Difficulties…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5 Student Participation ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5 Family Participation …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6 Limitations ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6

“Breads Around The World”: Unit Recommendations ………………………………………………………………… 6 The Curriculum Cycle………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..6 Build The Field ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7 Deconstructing and Modelling ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7 Joint Construction ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7 Individual Construction…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7 Assessment …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 8

Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8 Bibliography…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9 Appendix 1: Cultural Food Restrictions & Preparations (list) …………………………………………………….. 9 APPENDIX 2: Wing Jan’s Class Data Chart on ‘Procedural Texts’ ………………………………………………………… 11 APPENDIX 3: “Breads Around The World” Links and Recipe List ………………………………………………………… 12

 

 

Introduction

The focus of this report is to address how to create an inclusive integrated unit on ‘food and food preparation’ this upcoming term for all of our students, including those English language learners (ELL) from Muslim, Jehovah Witness, Indian, Chinese, and Anglo backgrounds. Our goal is to create an action plan that will ensure that our students feel comfortable, welcome, and have the confidence to pursue their English learning in a safe and inclusive environment, while having their needs met. I know this sounds like a tall order, but given the researched recommendations provided in this report to support our actions, we will persevere triumphantly.

Intercultural Understanding

Before we can meet our students’ needs, we need to know who our students are; what their first language is, what their cultural background is, what their religion and practices are, and if they are Australian born, migrants or refugees. “Each of us has different ‘cultural layers’…our cultural identities are historically and geographically determined. Culture and our cultural identity are constantly changing” (Adoniou, 2012b). And it is our duty to obtain depth of knowledge in these areas in order to attain a truly inclusive unit. We cannot expect our students to listen with respect about a foreign language or someone else’s culture (ACARA Australian Curriculum, 2013c), if we do not give value to their own as well. It is absolutely imperative that we include the cultural identities of all our students. “When modeling examples of activities do not always use the default position of white urban Australia” (Adoniou, 2012b) because that would erase our efforts in connecting with our students. We need to achieve Intercultural Understanding (IU) in order to “participate and negotiate with people in a variety of social and cultural contexts” (Adoniou, 2012b). This is why I feel it is important to begin with what the Australian Curriculum calls the Intercultural Understanding Learning Continuum (ACARA Australian Curriculum, 2013b). Adoniou states that this is a three-tiered view of developing IU. She lists them as Recognition, Interaction, and Reflection (Adoniou, 2012a). By adopting this learning continuum our ELLs will know and understand their culture, another’s culture and have the skill to work between them (Adoniou, 2012b). Within the Recognition view, we should acknowledge the differences and similarities amongst us, both in and out of the classroom (Adoniou, 2012a). We can accomplish this by holding discussions with the students about where they come from and maybe look at a map and point those places out. We can then transition the discussion into what foods are eaten in their households, and then use a smart board and investigate and explore more about those foods and how they are prepared and compare them to different cultures (ACARA Australian Curriculum, 2013c).

The second tier in the IU tool is Interaction, where we can explore those “similarities and differences through contact with those cultures” (Adoniou, 2012a). We can accomplish this by having the students bring in pictures and items from home related to: food and food preparation, or special celebrations where food is involved. We also should invite parents, local community, and staff members to come in and share their information, objects, recipes, and cooking skills with the students. This will help students to empathise with others as well as offer multiple perspectives across cultures (ACARA Australian Curriculum, 2013a). They can do this by providing a baking lesson on a type of bread from their own cultural background. These actions will be key in proving that all cultural backgrounds eat and make their own types of bread, which makes us all similar, but that also “bread is made and eaten differently throughout the world” (Adoniou, 2012a), which also makes us different. The final tier, Reflection, can be accomplished through discussion and student response writing about the “new knowledge gained about cultures” (Adoniou, 2012a). This helps the students “reflect on intercultural experiences” and “mediate cultural difference” (ACARA Australian Curriculum, 2013d). A great follow-up to the baking lessons would be to create a procedural text, like a bread recipe book, with the students. This book can be created individually, or as a class project; and should include recipes from different cultures, including those of the students involved. Students can have family members who did not participate in the baking lessons provide home recipes to include in the class project. This way all students are able to make the project their own. Creating this connection for the students is critical in obtaining engagement which Cambourne (1995) states as an outcome of two of his Conditions of Learning: Demonstration and Immersion. Engagement is achieved when our students are convinced that they themselves can also bake these recipes, write the recipes, and share the newly learned cultural knowledge with confidence (Cambourne, 1995). These activities will help strengthen the identity of our students by “making difference normal” and “having learning environments which are ‘spacious’ enough to allow everyone to be who they are” (Adoniou, 2012b).

Considerations & Difficulties

Student Participation

Hertzberg (2012) observes that it is “important that mainstream teachers encourage the use of L1 in the classroom as L1 remains a crucial resource for L2 learning”. We need to remember to encourage our students to use their L1. “Competence in the home language(s) helps students to learn subsequent languages. This is why teachers need to find out about the child’s competency in the first language (L1) and always support the maintenance of L1 because learning English in an English-speaking schooling context is different from learning a foreign language…” (Hertzberg, 2012). This can be addressed by having the students use their L1 to name the different types of bread or the names of ingredients. These words and their English counterparts should be posted on the wall in the classroom as a visual text display and a reminder to our students that we value their linguistic differences, aid the visual learners, and to help develop literacy skills in both their L1 and English (Gibbons, 2002). This is vital in helping our ELLs because as Hertzberg notes that “Students about ten years or older should be able to learn another language” more quickly because often it is just a matter of transferring the many fundamental conceptual understandings already learnt in L1 into language two (L2)” (2012). But not all of our students have come to us with the prior knowledge of vocabulary or “linguistic structures” in their L1 (Hertzberg, 2012). We need to consider this fact in all our programming and make adjustments where need be.

Family Participation

In order to include our students’ family members to partake in our baking project we need to send an invitation home asking for any volunteers to share an afternoon with us. We’d ask for them to share some of their cultural background knowledge with us by way of stories, baking lesson, and/or discussion on food preparation and typical dishes from their culture.

Limitations

Due to the many cultural and religious, not to mention allergy, restrictions on food it is best to steer clear of peanuts and meats. A note should be sent home stating that the students will be participating in baking breads at school and if there are any food restrictions that we are unaware of that they should contact us. We need to take into account the different daily practices of our students and their families (Adoniou, 2012b), and note that some families may not want their children to take part in the baking process. The note should also reflect the decision to only cook vegetarian items and to not include peanuts. There should be some consideration in possibly illuminating the use of gluten, dairy, and egg as well for some allergy and anaphylactic sufferers. For further information regarding specific religious and cultural food limitations please see APPENDIX 1.

“Breads Around The World”: Unit Recommendations

The Curriculum Cycle

The focus of the unit should be on bread recipes, bread making and preparation, and procedural writing of recipes. The purpose of the unit is to create expand knowledge of bread, develop vocabulary, develop an understanding of procedural writing structures, and create IU by sharing of cultural and prior knowledge with one another. Consider using the “Breads Around The World” theme to address subjects like History, Maths, Science, Art, IT, as well as English. For History allow “all children to share their

TESL 7152 S2 Assessment 2 TESL Scenario Report

experiences of how the past in their country/experiences differs from the present” (Adoniou, 2012b) in regards to the preparation of bread. For Science & Maths bring ingredients to class and ask each student to shop for the ingredients to make their own bread, and then have them measure out ingredients into bowls and mix them. For IT take photos of the project process and create a blog or booklet for the children to take home (Wing Jan, 2001). And for SOSE we can arrange class trips to local cultural food locations like a Halal butcher, an Asian grocer, or a Jewish Deli. I recommend that we utilize the mode continuum of Scaffolding Literacy and build our programming around The Curriculum Cycle in order to better engage our L1 learners (Hyde, 2012c). The following is an example on how to follow this cycle with the “Breads Around The World” theme.

Build The Field

Hold a discussion on different cultural foods and then guide it towards bread. A quick Google search online can bring up many different bread images for the children to view and discuss. The book “The Little Red Hen” can then be used to discuss the processes in which bread is made. Be sure to find a copy of the book that describes the processes in how the bread is made (e.g. sifting, kneading, baking, cutting), because there are different versions.

Deconstructing and Modelling

Have a family member instruct a baking lesson on a cultural bread of their own and guide the students with appropriate procedural language like “now we pour the oil into the bowl” and ” the next step is to…” This will scaffold the children when it comes time to analyse the recipe procedures (Wing Jan, 2001).

Joint Construction

“Jointly construct a simple recipe making sure to include the appropriate structures and features” that were just analysed in the last lesson (Wing Jan, 2001). This can be done on a smart or white board. Wing Jan (2001) suggests using a class data chart to document the learning, which can be added onto in future terms with other types of procedural texts (if we should decide to continue with this type). For an example please see APPENDIX 2.

Individual Construction

“Discuss the need to write clear, easy-to-follow and logically sequenced instructions” (Wing Jan, 2001). The children can then write their own bread recipe of their choosing following the procedural structures learned in the last lesson (Wing Jan, 2001). “As a particular skill from any subject is taught, a chart or booklet can be written to remind the children of the process” (Wing Jan, 2001).

Assessment

Assessment can be informal by way of interview to observe if the student can identify the basic structure of a recipe, or uses action verbs at the beginning of most steps. A formal assessment can be to create a “breads around the world” recipe book individually or as a class using the appropriate structures of procedural text properly, or a wall display of student written recipes (Wing Jan, 2001).

Conclusion

This report concludes with these 4 simple recommended guidelines to fulfil an integrated unit on ‘food and food preparation’ action plan. 1. It is important for us to create IU for the benefit of out students. This will help them gain confidence to learn new skills and share their prior knowledge. 2. We should always consider the cultural differences in daily practices of our students and their families but remember to find ways to make all our activities inclusive so that no one is left out. 3. Send notes home to invite families to take part in our projects and to advise them of any foods or preparation of foods related to the project, which may offend or concern them. 4. Create engaging programming that values the cultural identities of all who are involved and be clear to administer appropriate concern and care with all personal knowledge gained about our students so that our students will feel safe and have their needs met. If we follow these simple guidelines our unit this term will be inclusive, integrated and meaningful for all.

TESL 7152 S2 Assessment 2 TESL Scenario Report

Bibliography

ACARA Australian Curriculum, A. a. (2013a). Intercultural Understanding: Interacting and

empathising with others. Retrieved February 13th, 2013, from http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/GeneralCapabilities/Intercultural-understanding/Organising- elements/Interacting-and-empathising-with-others

ACARA Australian Curriculum, A. a. (2013b). Intercultural Understanding: Organising elements. Retrieved February 13th, 2013, from http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/GeneralCapabilities/Intercultural-understanding/Organising- elements/Organising-elements

ACARA Australian Curriculum, A. a. (2013c). Intercultural Understanding: Recognising culture and developing respect. Retrieved February 13th, 2013, from :

http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/GeneralCapabilities/Intercultural-understanding/Organising- elements/Recognising-culture-and-developing-respect

ACARA Australian Curriculum, A. a. (2013d). Intercultural Understanding: Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility. Retrieved February 13th, 2013, from

http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/GeneralCapabilities/Intercultural-understanding/Organising- elements/Reflecting-on-intercultural-experiences-and-taking-responsibility

Adoniou, M. (2012a). Recognition, Interaction, Reflection. Unit 7152 Teaching English as a Second Language: Semester 2, 2012. [Tutorial Handout] . University of Canberra.

Adoniou, M. (2012b). Week 5: Cultural Awareness. Unit 7152 Teaching English as a Second Language: Semester 2, 2012. [Lecture Notes] . University of Canberra.

Cambourne, B. (1995). Toward An Educationally Relevant Theory Of Literacy Learning: Twenty Years Of Inquiry. The Reading Teacher , 49 (3).

Gibbons, P. (2002). Scaffolding Language, Scaffolding Learning. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Hertzberg, M. (2012). Teaching English Language Learners in Mainstream Classes. Primary English

Teaching Association Australia (PETAA).
Hyde, F. (2012a). Week 2 Lecture: What is TESL? Unit 7152 Teaching English as a Second

Language: Semester 2, 2012. [Powerpoint Slides] , 21. University of Canberra.
Hyde, F. (2012b). Week 2-3: Lecture Notes. Unit 7152 Teaching English as a Second Language:

Semester 2, 2012. [Lecture Notes] . University of Canberra.
Hyde, F. (2012c). Week 7 & 10 Tutorials. Unit 7152 Teaching English as a Second Language:

Semester 2, 2012. [Tutorial Handout] . University of Canberra.
Wing Jan, L. (2001). Procedural Texts. In Write Ways: Modelling Writing Forms (2nd Edition) (pp. 63-

73). South Melbourne, VIC: Oxford University Press.

Appendix 1: Cultural Food Restrictions & Preparations (list)

This list is not exhaustive; it only lists the cultural background needs of the students in our unit.

TESL 7152 S2 Assessment 2 TESL Scenario Report

Muslim/ Halal:

o All utensils, crockery, glass, serving dishes and food preparation surfaces must be thoroughly cleaned before use.
o Halal meat should be purchased from an authorised Halal butcher.
o Ensure that the ordering of Halal and non-Halal meat is done separately.
o A separate surface work area, chopping board and knife should be used for HALAL MEAT AND PRODUCTS ONLY and should be thoroughly

cleaned before use.
o Make sure you can tell between the Halal meat and the non-Halal by labelling them or by putting on different toppings etc….
o Never cook Halal and non-Halal meat in the same container.
o If possible, cook Halal meat in a separate oven to non-Halal.
o If separate ovens aren’t available, Halal meat should be cooked in a separate container to non-Halal, and the Halal meat should be on the upper

shelf with the non-Halal on the lower shelf to avoid contamination.
o Use vegetable oil when frying any food such as chips, spring rolls, etc.
o Don’t cook or serve any food that has had alcohol (such as beer or wine) added to it (however little the quantity).
o Ensure salads do not contain any non-Halal meat or pork and the cheese used is Halal.
o Take extra care to ensure that all the Halal food does not make even accidental contact with non-Halal food through mixing utensils, spillages

and drops. Once such contact has been made the food cannot thereafter be consumed by Muslims under any circumstances.
o Fruit, vegetables, dairy products, grains/cereals, herbs and spices are Halal.
o If making sandwiches, avoid any butter substitutes made with rendered beef fat. The label will indicate use of such fat.
o Avoid the following e numbers as they are non-vegetarian: E120 Cochineal; E441 Gelatine; E542 Edible Bone Phosphate. Some other e number

substances can also be produced from animal sources. A full list can be found at http://www.vegsoc.org/info/enumbers.html.
o Any biscuits provided should contain no animal fats other than butter. Also check the label to ensure that cochineal has not been used in their

production as this is not vegetarian.
o Food items should not contain gelatine (unless it is of a vegetarian variety).
o Alcohol should not be used in the preparation of any food.
o No animal fat should be used in any cooking, and when cheese is used it should be of the kind labelled ‘vegetarian’ which indicates that it has

not been made with rennet which comes from cows’ stomachs. o Potato chips that have beef tallow are NOT permitted

Jehovah Witness:

  • Well bled meat only.

  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/witnesses/witnessethics/ethics_1.shtml

    Hindu:

    Chinese:

    How Table Manners Vary Around the Globe

    http://cultureandfood.wordpress.com/tag/eating-with-hands/

    “She explains that Indians eat with their hands because they believe that food is more than “just protein, carbs and fat … it nourishes the mind, intellect and spirit. Food has to be sensual and mindful. Eating with your hands gives you a connection with the food. It’s the least violent way to eat.”

    “In the Indian, Pakistani, Arab and African cultures that shun silverware, eating with your hands doesn’t mean that anything goes. Before the meal, the hands must be washed, wiped or even rubbed with sand, as desert Arabs do. But the foremost rule is that only the right hand may be employed for eating.”

    “Another taboo Jacinto describes is jutha or double dipping your bread into a communal dish of food, “It is never done,” she cautions. Also, in Indian culture, you are expected to clean your plate. “Grain is so important in India, that not one grain should be left.” This brings up an interesting contradiction: in China, Japan and India, finishing every last grain of rice you are served is proof that you enjoyed the meal. While in Cambodia, Jordan, Egypt and the Philippines, it is more polite to leave a little food on your plate. An empty plate could insult your hosts, implying that they did not serve you enough.”

    “In Saudi Arabia, diners burp after eating to compliment the cook. In Hong Kong and Japan, loudly slurping your noodles demonstrates your enjoyment of the food; literally, that it is so delicious you cannot even wait until it cools off.”

    “in Germany, “You never take any food in your hands. It’s always eaten with a knife and fork.” On the flip side, Raab advises travelers to Germany, “Never use your knife to cut the boiled potatoes that are commonly served. It’s insulting to the hostess. Like saying that they are not tender enough to eat. Use the side of your fork, instead.”

Satvik – Pure, good, healthy – saintly

rajasik – fatty, spicy, too sweet – indulgent

tamasik – meats, garlic, onions, aphrodisiacs – demonic

TESL 7152 S2 Assessment 2 TESL Scenario Report

APPENDIX 2: Wing Jan’s Class Data Chart on ‘Procedural Texts’

TESL 7152 S2 Assessment 2 TESL Scenario Report

APPENDIX 3: “Breads Around The World” Links and Recipe List

Breads around the world:

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_breads

  • http://www.whats4eats.com/breads

  • http://ierg.net/lessonplans/tables/unit_plans/overview_pdf/Marianne%20Honeywell%20Bread%20FINAL%20.pdf

    Kosher Halal & Peanut Free bread Search:

    Yummly. (2013). Kosher Halal Bread Search. Yummly.com. Accessed on February 12th, 2013:

    http://www.yummly.com/recipes?q=kosher+halal+bread&noUserSettings=true&allowedIngredient=&excludedIngredient=&maxTotalTimeInSeconds=Any+t ime&flavor.salty=+&flavor.savory=+&flavor.sour=Dislike&flavor.bitter=Dislike&flavor.sweet=+&flavor.spicy=Hate&allowedDiet=387%5ELacto- ovo+vegetarian&allowedAllergy=394%5EPeanut-Free&nutrition.cholesterol=+&nutrition.fat=+&nutrition.calories=+&nutrition.carbs=+

    Gluten & Lactose Free Bread

    http://www.food.com/recipeprint.do?rid=57170&scaleto=1.0

    Serves: 1 loaf

    Preparation Time: 55 minutes

    Ingredients:

    • 2 cups rice flour

    • 1⁄2 cup potato starch

    • 1⁄2 cup tapioca flour

    • 1/3 cup corn starch

    • 1 tablespoon xanthan gum

    • 1 1⁄2 teaspoons salt

    • 3 tablespoons granulated sugar

    • 1 tablespoon egg substitute

    • 1 tablespoon active dry yeast

    • 4 egg whites

    • 4 tablespoons canola oil

    • 1 teaspoon cider vinegar

    • 1 1⁄4 cups water

      Method/Preparation:

    1. In a medium sized bowl, measure all of the dry ingredients

    2. Stir or whisk well

    3. Combine liquids in a separate bowl and mix well

    4. Preheat oven to 375 degrees Fahrenheit

    5. Lightly oil a 9×5 inch loaf pan

    6. Add yeast to the mixture and beat in the liquids

    7. Beat for 2 minutes

    8. Scrape into loaf pan, cover with plastic wrap, let rise to the top of the pan.

    9. Bake for 40 to 45 minutes or until lightly browned.

    10. Cook on a wire rack before slicing.

    Australian Damper

    http://www.bestrecipes.com.au/recipe/easy-australian-damper-L3230.html

    Serves: 6- 8 people

    Preparation Time: 15 minutes or less

    Ingredients:

    • 250g self-raising flour

    • 1⁄2 teaspoon salt

    • 25 g unsalted butter (chilled and cubed)

    • 175mL milk

      Method/Preparation:

    1. Mix the flour with the salt in a large bowl. Add the butter and rub it into the flour with the tips of your fingers, until it resembles fine crumbs.

    2. Stir in the milk with a round blade knife (butter knife) to make a soft but not sticky dough.

    3. Turn out onto a lightly floured work surface and shape into a soft, smooth ball.

    4. Set the ball of dough onto a tray or baking sheet and flatten gently to make a round about 17 cm across. Cut a deep cross in the dough and brush

      lightly with milk.

    5. Bake at 190°C for 30 minutes until golden.

    6. Serve warm or at room temperature.

    Recipe Notes:

    Can be frozen for up to 1 month. Variations: Add 100 g grated cheese to the mixture before adding the milk and sprinkle with a little extra cheese before

TESL 7152 S2 Assessment 2 TESL Scenario Report

baking. I also add 2 tablespoons of chives or parsley. If you want it to be sweet, add 2 tablespoons golden syrup and 2 tablespoons caster sugar to the mixture with the milk. The milk can be replaced with beer – this makes it lighter and fluffier.

Colombian Arepa Recipe

http://www.sbs.com.au/food/recipe/604/Arepas

Preparation Time: 1 hour and 30 minutes

Ingredients:

  • 1 kilo white corn

  • 1 tablespoon butter

  • 1 tablespoon salt

    Method/Preparation:

  1. Soak snow corn (white corn) overnight.

  2. Drain the corn the following day

  3. Cook the corn in boiling water for about 1 hour or until soft (al dente).

  4. Finely grind the corn in a food processor

  5. Knead the ground corn into smooth consistency dough. (There should be no lumps)

  6. Add butter and salt to the dough

  7. With your hands, make 120 gram balls of dough, then flatten them into a tortilla shape (about 1⁄2 cm to 1 cm in thickness)

  8. Using a non-stick frying pan or a charcoal BBQ, cook the arepa for 5 minutes on one side and then turnover and cook for 3 minutes.

Recipe Notes:

There is no need to add butter or oil to the pan. The arepa will cook without it on a non-stick pan. When the arepa starts to slide around the pan when you move it, it indicates that that side is cooked.
Arepa Fillings: To create a main course arepa (Sandwich style), simply layer fillings between two arepas. For example: a generous mix of fried chicken, onion and tomatoes with aji (a Colombian sauce with tomatoes, onion, lime and a pinch of salt), or your choice of meat, cheese, sofrito sauce and avocado would be ideal fillings. In northern Colombia fried egg is a favorite, where the egg is actually fried into the arepa.

Chinese Fortune Cookie Recipe

http://chinesefood.about.com/od/diningout/r/fortunecookie.htm

Preparation Time: 30 minutes

Ingredients:

  • 1⁄2 teaspoon pure vanilla extract

  • 1⁄2 teaspoon pure almond extract

  • 3 tablespoons vegetable oil

  • 8 tablespoons all-purpose flour

  • 1 1⁄2 teaspoons corn starch

  • 1⁄4 teaspoon salt

  • 8 tablespoons granulated sugar

  • 3 teaspoons water

    Method/Preparation:

  1. Write fortunes on pieces of paper that are 3 1⁄2 inches long and 1⁄2 inch wide.

  2. Cut a stencil out of a plastic coffee can lid in the shape of a 3-inch disk.

  3. Preheat oven to 300 degrees Fahrenheit.

  4. Grease (2) 9×13 inch baking sheets

  5. In a medium bow, lightly beat the egg white, vanilla extract, almond extract and vegetable oil until frothy, but not stiff.

  6. Sift the flour, cornstarch, salt and sugar into a separate bowl.

  7. Stir the water into the flour mixture

  8. Add the flour into the egg white mixture and stir until you have a smooth batter. (The batter should not be runny, but should drop easily off a

    wooden spoon.)

  9. Place level tablespoons of batter onto the cookie sheet, spacing them at least 3 inches apart.

  10. With a small offset spatula, spread batter through the stencil so it is a circle onto a silpat or parchment paper, about 6 per cookie sheet

  11. Bake until the outer 1⁄2 inch of each cookie turns golden brown and they are easy to remove from the baking sheet with a spatula. (14-15 minutes)

  12. Folding and shaping the cookie:

    1. You have a total of 20 seconds to shape and fold all of the removed cookies from the oven!

    2. Working quickly, remove the cookie from the baking sheet with a spatula and flip it over in your hand. Lay the fortune in the middle of

      the cookie, and hold it there while folding the cookie in half.

    3. Still holding the folded cookie in both hands, between your thumb and index fingers, pull the ends down over the rim of a glass or a

      muffin tin, or the handle of a wooden spoon, until the ends meet. The opened side of the fortune cookie should be facing upward, towards

      you.

  13. Place the finished cookie in the cup of a muffin tin to that it keeps its shape.

  14. Continue with the rest of the cookies.

Recipe Notes:

1. Make Up the Fortunes Ahead of Time

This will give you more time to compose the messages. The strips of paper used should be 3 to 3 1/2 inches long and no more than 1/2-inch wide.

2. Use Cold Baking Sheets

TESL 7152 S2 Assessment 2 TESL Scenario Report

Fortune cookies tend to turn out best when you start with a cold (and greased) baking sheet. Since most recipes make more cookies than can be placed on one 9 X 13-inch baking sheet (the cookies spread out during baking), it’s best to use two baking sheets. That way, you don’t need to wait for the sheet to cool down before baking the next batch of cookies.
3. Start By Making Only One or Two Cookies

The instant the cookies are removed from the oven, the race begins: you have twenty seconds at most to add the fortunes, fold the cookies in half and then shape them into the standard fortune cookie shape before they stiffen and become unworkable. It’s best to practice this technique with one or two cookies first– that way, you’re not feeling pressured.

4. Wear Close Fitting Cotton Gloves

You need to work with the cookies when they first come out of the oven and are still very hot – wearing cotton gloves makes this easier.

Indian Roti (Sweet Bread)

http://allrecipes.com/recipe/indian-sweet-bread/

Serves: 12 servings

Preparation Time: 40 minutes

Ingredients:

  • 2 cups all-purpose flour

  • 1⁄4 teaspoon salt

  • 2/3 cup water

  • 1⁄4 cup white sugar

  • 1 tablespoon vegetable oil

    Method/Preparation:

  1. In a large bowl, stir together flour, salt and water until soft dough is formed.

  2. Turn dough out onto a lightly floured surface and knead briefly.

  3. Divide dough into golf ball size pieces and cover with a damp cloth or plastic wrap.

  4. Select a ball of dough and roll out until very thin but not torn.

  5. Sprinkle lightly and evenly with sugar.

  6. Fold up dough into a small square and roll out a gain until thin

  7. Heat a lightly oiled griddle over medium heat.

  8. Place the rolled dough onto the pan and cook for 1⁄2 to 1 minute on each side until golden.

  9. Serve immediately.

  10. Repeat until all dough balls have been rolled and cooked.

Chinese Sweet Bun

http://www.yummly.com/recipe/external/Chinese-Sweet-Bun-Dough-AllRecipes

Serves: 24 servings

Preparation Time: 3 hours and 20 minutes

Ingredients:

  • 1 cup white sugar

  • 2 cups milk (warm)

  • 2 tablespoons active dry yeast

  • 8 cups bread flour

  • 4 beaten eggs (divided)

  • 12 tablespoons vegetable oil

  • 4 teaspoons salt

  • 4 teaspoons water

    Method/Preparation:

  1. Whisk the sugar and milk together in a large mixing bowl until the sugar is dissolved.

  2. Stir in the yeast, and let stand until a frothy layer forms on the milk (about 10 minutes).

  3. Stir in the flour, most of the beaten eggs (reserve about 1 tablespoon of egg in a small bowl for later), vegetable oil, and salt, mixing well until

    thoroughly combined.

  4. Turn the dough out onto a well-floured work surface, and knead until smooth and elastic (about10 minutes). The dough should be slightly sticky.

  5. Place the dough into a large oiled bowl, cover with a damp cloth or plastic wrap, place the bowl in a warm spot and let rise until doubled (about 2-3

    hours).

  6. Line a baking sheet with parchment paper.

  7. Remove the dough from the bowl, and knead it briefly to punch down (about 1 minute).

  8. Roll the dough out into a rope and cut it into 12 equal sized pieces.

  9. Roll each piece into a ball, and use your fingers to flatten each ball into a disk about 5 to 6 inches in diameter.

  10. Place about 2 tablespoons of your favourite bun filing in the centre of the dough circle, and bring the edges of the dough up over the filling.

  11. Pinch and twist the top together to seal in the filling. Make sure there are no open spots.

  12. Place each filled bun seam-side down on the parchment paper while you finish making the rest of the buns.

  13. Cover the filled buns with plastic wrap and let them rise for 30 minutes.

  14. Preheat oven to 175 degrees Celsius.

  15. Beat the 1-tablespoon of reserved beaten egg with water to make an egg wash and brush the top of each bun.

  16. Bake in the preheated oven until the tops are browned and shiny, turning the baking sheet around halfway through baking for 20 to 30 minutes.

  17. Serve warm.

TESL 7152 S2 Assessment 2 TESL Scenario Report

Indian Naan Recipe

http://www.yummly.com/recipe/external/Naan-Allrecipes

Serves: 14 servings

Preparation Time: 3 hours

Ingredients:

  • 7 g active dry yeast

  • 235 ml warm water

  • 50 g white sugar

  • 45 ml milk

  • 1 egg (beaten)

  • 10 g salt

  • 615 g bread flour

  • 6 g minced garlic

  • 55 g melted butter

    Method/Preparation:

  1. In a large bowl, dissolve yeast in warm water and let stand about 10 minutes, until frothy.

  2. Stir in sugar, milk, egg, salt, and enough flour to make soft dough.

  3. Knead for 6 to 8 minutes on a lightly floured surface, or until smooth.

  4. Place dough in a well oiled bowl, cover with a damp cloth, and set aside to rise for 1 hour, or until the dough has doubled in volume.

  5. Punch down the dough, and knead in the garlic.

  6. Pinch of small handfuls of dough about the size of a golf ball. Roll into balls, and place on a tray.

  7. Cover with a towel and allow rising until doubled in size (about 30 minutes).

  8. During the second rising, preheat the grill to high heat.

  9. Roll on ball of dough out into a thin circle.

  10. Lightly oil grill and place dough on it and cook for 2 to 3 minutes, or until puffy and lightly browned.

  11. Brush uncooked side with butter, and turn over for another 2-4 minutes.

  12. Remove from grill and continue process with the rest of the dough.

Jewish Cheese Sambusak

http://www.yummly.com/recipe/external/Cheese-Sambusak-The-Shiksa-Blog-48867

Serves: 24-28 servings

Ingredients:

  • 1⁄2 cup canola oil

  • 1⁄2 cup unsalted butter (melted)

  • 1⁄2 teaspoon salt

  • 1⁄2 cup water (hot)

  • 3 cups flour

  • 6 oz. feta cheese (crumbled)

  • 6 oz. kashkaval cheese (crumbled)

  • 1⁄4 cup fresh parsley (chopped)

  • 3 eggs (divided)

  • 1⁄4 teaspoon black pepper

    Method/Preparation:

  1. Combine canola oil, melted butter, and salt in a mixing bowl.

  2. Mix in the hot (not boiling) water.

  3. Gradually stir in the flour, 1⁄2 a cup at a time, til soft and oily dough forms.

  4. When the dough becomes too thick to stir, use your hands to work the last bit of the flour into the dough, and stop when the ball holds together and

    the dough is smooth.

  5. Cover with plastic and let sit for a few minutes while you make the filling. (Less than 30 minutes)

  6. Sambusak Filling:

a. In a food processor, combine feta and kashkaval cheese, parsley, 2 eggs and black pepper. Pulse ingredients till a light creamy paste forms.

  1. Preheat oven to 350 degrees Fahrenheit.

  2. Pull a walnut-sized piece of dough onto a floured surface; recover the dough ball with plastic. Roll the small piece into a ball with your hands.

  3. Lightly flour your pin, roll the dough out into a rough circle that is between 4 1⁄2 and 5 inches wide. The dough will be quite thin.

  4. Place 1 tablespoon of filling in the centre of the circle. Fold the circle in half over the filling. Seal the edges by pinching gently with your fingers to

    create a half-moon shape.

  5. To seal the edges, use a fork to score the edges and make them pretty.

  6. Repeat process until all of the dough has been used. (Try rolling out 5 at a time)

  7. Place sambusak on a lightly greased or parchment-lined cookie sheet.

  8. Beat the remaining egg with 1 teaspoon of cold water.

  9. Brush the sambusak with a thin layer of the egg wash.

  10. Bake at 350 degrees Fahrenheit for about 40-45 minutes or until golden brown.

Recipe Notes:

TESL 7152 S2 Assessment 2 TESL Scenario Report

Assembled uncooked sambusak can be stored in the refrigerator for up to 24 hours prior to baking. You can also freeze them; just pop them in the oven directly from the freezer, brush with egg wash and sesame or poppy seeds (if using), and bake till golden brown. If frying, let them defrost for about 20 minutes prior to placing them in the hot oil.

Ethiopian Injera Flat Bread

http://www.food.com/recipeprint.do?rid=96980

Serves: 10 servings

Preparation Time: 72 hours and 10 minutes

Ingredients:

  • 1 1⁄2 cups ground teff

  • 2 cups water

  • salt (to taste)

    Method/Preparation:

  1. Mix ground teff with the water and let stand ina bowl covered with a dish towel at room temperature until it bubbles and has turned sour (as long as 3 days, consistency of very think pancake batter)

  2. Stir in the salt, so that you can barely detect its taste

  3. Lightly oil an 8 -9 inch skillet

  4. Heat over medium heat.

  5. Pour in enough batter to cover the bottom of the skillet, About 1⁄4 cup will make a thin pancake covering the surface of an 8 inch skillet. (Spread the

    batter around immediately by turning and rotating the skillet in the air: French Crepe method)

  6. Cook briefly until holes form in the injera and the edges lift from the pan. Do not let it brown, and don’t flip it over, as it’s only to be cooked on one

    side.

  7. Remove and let cool, place plastic wrap or foil between successive pieces so they don’t stick together.

  8. To serve lay one injera on a plate and ladle your chosen dish on top.

Recipe Notes:

Guests can be instructed to eat their meal without utensils, instead using injera to scoop up their food.

Raw Sweet Potato Bread

http://www.food.com/recipeprint.do?rid=457480&scaleto=4.0

Serves: 4 people

Preparation Time: 15 hours and 5 minutes

Ingredients:

  • 2 sweet potatoes

  • 1 cup flax seeds

  • 1⁄4 cup honey

  • 1 tablespoon cinnamon

  • 1 dash sea salt, to taste

    Method/Preparation:

  1. Combine all of the ingredients into a food processor and blend until smooth and well combined.

  2. Spread the mixture onto a dehydrator tray and set the temperature at 115 degrees Fahrenheit.

  3. Leave it in the dehydrator for 15 hours and then break them apart and eat them.

Norwegian Lefse Bread

http://allrecipes.com/Recipe-Tools/Print/Recipe.aspx?recipeID=18082&origin=detail&servings=6&metric=false

Middle Eastern Pita Bread

http://mideastfood.about.com/od/breadsrice/r/pitabreadrecipe.htm

Vegetarian Wonton Dumpling

http://www.taste.com.au/recipes/25360/vegetarian+dumplings

Polish Bagel

http://www.bbcgoodfood.com/recipes/1088/bagels-for-brunch

Mexican Tortilla

http://www.tasteofhome.com/Recipes/Homemade-Tortillas/Print

Pizza Bread

http://www.bestrecipes.com.au/recipe/super-easy-pizza-dough-L723.html

British Scone

http://www.taste.com.au/recipes/8163/basic+scones

Indian Chapati Flat Bread

http://allrecipes.com/Recipe-Tools/Print/Recipe.aspx?recipeID=85469&origin=detail&servings=10&metric=false

Native American Fry Bread (#2)

http://allrecipes.com/Recipe-Tools/Print/Recipe.aspx?recipeID=6880&origin=detail&servings=12&metric=false

Maori Fry Bread

http://www.grouprecipes.com/12518/maori-fried-bread.html/print

Native American (Navajo) Fry Bread

http://whatscookingamerica.net/History/NavajoFryBread.htm

OLD ASSESSMENT – SOSE ESSAY (recieved a Distinction)

7988 Social and Environmental Education 1

Assessment 1 (Essay):

What makes an effective HSS teacher in the area of SUSTAINABILITY within early childhood education?

In order to understand what makes an effective Humanities and Social Sciences (HSS) teacher in the area of sustainability, one must know what the word sustainability means. There are different descriptions on what sustainability and sustainability education is and what it does for students’ education. The Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (2010) claims, “sustainability is about reducing our ecological footprint while simultaneously improving the quality of life that we value”; while Reynolds (2012) adds that sustainability is about reducing our “negative impact on the environment, while improving the quality of life of our society”. Sustainability education is fundamentally about values, respect for others, including those of present and future generations, for the environment, and for the resources of the planet we inhabit (UNESCO, 2008); but the most common belief about sustainability education is that it “addresses the ongoing capacity of Earth to maintain all life” (ACARA, n.d.; ACARA, 2012). This paper will address why sustainability is included in HSS education, the many educational matters related to teaching sustainability in early childhood, and cite evidence in support of the many facets that create an effective HSS teacher in the area of sustainability.

Australia has an international reputation for leading-edge education for sustainability practice (DEWHA, 2009), and includes it within the HSS framework as a cross-curriculum priority; although evidence in the early childhood sector has “been slow to take up the challenge of sustainability” (Davis, 2005) with the new national curriculum, this is slowly beginning to change. HSS “provides content that supports the development of students’ world views, particularly in relation to” the access and use of the Earth’s resources (ACARA, n.d.). So it stands to reason that sustainability would be a logical inclusion into HSS education. ACARA (n.d.) states that education for sustainability “develops the knowledge, skills, values and world views necessary for people to act in ways that contribute to more sustainable patterns of living.” They add that it also “enables individuals and communities to reflect on ways of interpreting and engaging with the world”, which are important needs of the present (ACARA, n.d.). This engagement is achieved by creating “a renewed and balanced approach to the way humans interact with each others and the environment” (ACARA, n.d.). Sustainability, a cross- curriculum priority in the Australian Curriculum (AC), is focused mainly on 3 topic areas: Systems, World Views, and Futures (ACARA, n.d.).

Effective sustainability educators will teach students: about how all life forms are connected to the earth, and how sustainable patterns of living rely on healthy ecological systems; to recognize that individual and community actions for sustainability rely on that of the local, national and global levels (ACARA, n.d.); and that an effective environmental education for sustainability curriculum provides the knowledge and understandings, skills, attitudes and values, and opportunities for participation and action that will help students to create a sustainable future (DEH, 2005).

Teaching these skills and attributes at an early age is crucial for creating “a more ecologically and socially just world through informed action” (ACARA, n.d.), because as students begin to understand the role of ethical principles, values and virtues in human life, acting with moral integrity, acting with regard for others, and having a desire and capacity to work for common good, they begin to develop ethical behavior and become well-informed citisens. (ACARA, 2012). Early childhood students develop understanding of the changes in environment over time, and the roles played by individuals and communities or the overuse of natural resource and the rise of environmental movements (ACARA, n.d.). It is important to note that the reason that these ideas and skills are taught at the K-2 sector is because “it is important for young children to learn to listen to other opinions, and respect others as well as to respect one’s self and express one’s own thoughts. It is also important for children to experience that their voices are heard and dealt with in a respected way” (UNESCO, 2008). It is also important to start teaching sustainability in early childhood because “young students are curious about their personal world and are interested in exploring it” (ACARA, 2012), and as stated before,

Kimberly Hall U3071645 SOSE Essay Extended Assessment 2

teaching students early on will ensure a well-informed citizen in the future because with guidance “even very young children are able to critically respond to environmental issues” (Davis, 2005). Furthermore, “sustainability should begin very early in life” (UNESCO, 2008) because at the K-2 sector children are developing their basic values, attitudes, skills, behaviours and habits” (UNESCO, 2008).

The AC’s draft Geography document (2012) emphasizes inquiry-based learning and teaching, and suggests opportunities for student-led questioning and that investigation should be provided at all stages of schooling. This method commonly results in the use of informal assessment, a tick mark sheet marked with abilities or knowledge achieved, almost achieved, or not. On the other hand, formal assessment is common in this area and is achieved by assessing the completion of projects and activities. Either way, an effective sustainability education teacher will utilize these essential teaching strategies and “the basic characteristics of curriculum planning to promote environmental education for sustainability” (DEH, 2005). This basic characteristics would include: ensuring that the key concepts of sustainability are clearly identified and coordinated wherever they appear in the curriculum and are reinforced through all key learning areas (DEH, 2005); ensuring that the students’ prior understandings are identified and inform the planning process (DEH, 2005); enabling all students to relate to their surroundings as a frame of reference and ensuring that content is relevant to their own lives (DEH, 2005; ACARA, 2012); adapting the curriculum in response to change and developments in the wider world; and ensuring that the curriculum matches the needs and interests of students and monitors and evaluates their learning from the beginning of their education (DEH, 2005). As part of Professional Practice, it is important for an effective teacher in sustainable education to include a variety of strategies that engage students in their learning (AITSL, 2011) by framing questions, evaluating the findings of investigations, guiding decisions and planning actions about environments, places and communities (ACARA, 2012). A range of techniques are available that encourage students to “explore environmental issues, generate possibilities and look for possible answers or solutions” (DEH, 2005). An effective sustainable education teacher in early childhood needs “to provide opportunities for divergent, multidimensional thinking” (DEH, 2005), and should relate all teaching plans to Bloom’s revised taxonomy table, which includes a range of higher and lower order thinking categories such as: creating, evaluating, analyzing, applying, understanding, and remembering (Tarlinton, 2003). Effective teachers of environmental education for sustainability should also recognise and respond to the four dimensions of the learner: reflective and deep thinker, ethical and responsible thinker, connected learner, and autonomous learner (DEH, 2005), because these emerging challenges are imminent. (DEH, 2005)

The teaching strategies related to sustainability education are vast and varied, but a preferred way for teaching sustainability and organizing the experiences within an environmental education program is to use the about, in, for framework (DEH, 2005). Education about the environment focuses on students’ understanding of the basic concepts and theories first (DEH, 2005; Kershaw, 2013). Education in the environment involves placing students into the environment and in direct contact “with a beach, forest, street or park to develop awareness and concern for the environment” (DEH, 2005; Fleer, 1998) in order to create an emotional connection in the students hearts (Kershaw, 2013); including fieldwork at all stages of the curriculum is an essential component of geographical learning (ACARA, 2012). This strategy, considered to be founded by great theorists like John Dewey, Kurt Lewin and

Jean Piaget (Miettinen, 2000), is called experiential learning, sometimes called ‘learning by doing’ or ‘hands on’, a strategy which is usually attributed to Vygotsky and Piaget for their kinaesthetic focus (Kershaw, 2013), “engages students in constructing knowledge, skills and values from direct experience and in contexts that are personally relevant to them” (DEH, 2005). Examples of this strategy include making toys from recycled items or paintings that show students’ understanding and solutions to real world problems (UNESCO, 2008). Education for the environment aims to promote a willingness and ability to adopt lifestyles that are compatible with the wise use of environmental resources (DEH, 2005) by having students create or participate in a sustainable project which Kimberly Hall U3071645 SOSE Essay Extended Assessment 3

promotes concrete actions in favour of the environment (Kershaw, 2013; UNESCO, 2008). This can be achieved by using the inquiry learning strategy, which “encourages students to respond to their own concern or curiosity and to investigate and act on an environmental issue” (DEH, 2005), because according to educational change theorist, Michael Fullan it only takes a small number of actions that help create deep-level change (UNESCO, 2008). Examples of this strategy in the K-2 sector would be to collect food scraps for composting for a school vegetable garden or flowerbed (Fleer, 1998). Further project ideas on lessons in sustainable education, found in the Sustainability Curriculum Framework (2010), are: ways humans care for themselves, others and for other species (DEWHA, 2010); how children all over the world are working for sustainability and the reasons why it would be valuable to link up with them (DEWHA, 2010); local plants and ecosystems that provided food for first Australians (DEWHA, 2010); and, identify and give reasons for change in objects, places and behaviour over the immediate past (DEWHA, 2010).

It is essential for teachers in the sustainable education area to engage in Professional Engagement and continually pursue professional development (AITSL, 2011)by reading articles on sustainability, attending workshops and seminars on environmental education, and seek advice and constructive feedback from supervisors and fellow teachers to improve knowledge and practice (AITSL, 2011). A story written about the Sustainable Planet Project (SPP) held in Brisbane, Queensland in 1997 that “led to enhanced play spaces, reduced waste, lowered water consumption and improved biodiversity” (Davis, 2005), promoted active citizenship in young learners, and led to tangible environmental outcomes (Davis, 2005), is an example of how reading journal articles on sustainability can promote professional development in teachers. Within the SPP article, Davis (2005) states that the staff involved used reflection, regular attendance of conferences and workshops, the undertaking of courses to upgrade qualifications, networking through professional associations, and actively seeking visitors to the centre who can share expert knowledge, team planning sessions where issues of curriculum and pedagogy are regularly discussed and debated as examples of their pursuit of professional development. Davis (2005) goes on to suggest that both “formal and informal approaches to professional development have generated a ‘grass roots’ collaborative learning culture which supports learning for the children, teachers, families and the community at large”.

It is clear, therefore, that to be an effective early childhood teacher in the area of sustainability one must pursue professional development in order to gain up-to-date content knowledge in sustainability education, and utilise vast and varied strategies and effective methods for teaching sustainability education. In conclusion, this paper has proven that sustainability education is an essential part of early childhood HSS teaching because it constructs varying benefits for the teacher, student, and local community involved. This paper has also found that there are many facets involved in creating an effective early childhood teacher in the area of sustainability, which includes strategies and effective methods for teaching, such as experiential learning, the use of higher and lower order thinking, and inquiry-based approaches.

Kimberly Hall U3071645 SOSE Essay Extended Assessment 4

Bibliography

ACARA. (n.d.). ACARA Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. Retrieved April 28th, 2013, from Cross-Curriculum Priorities – Sustainability: http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/CrossCurriculumPriorities/Sustainability

ACARA. (2012). Draft F-12 Australian Curriculum: Geography. ACARA Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. Canberra: ACARA.

AITSL. (2011). National Professional Standards for Teachers. Austrlian Institute For Teaching and School Leadership, Ministerial Council for Education, Early Childhood Development and Youth Affairs . VIC: Education Services Australia.

Davis, J. (2005). Educating for sustainability in the early years creating cultural change in a child care setting. Australian Journal of Environment Education , 21, 47-55.

DEH. (2005). Educating For A Sustainable Future: A National Environmental Education Statement for Australian Schools. Australian Government, Department of the Environment and Heritage. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.

DEWHA. (2009). Living Sustainably: The Australian Government’s National Action Plan for Education for Sustainability. Australian Government, Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.

DEWHA. (2010). Sustainability Curriculum Framework: A guide for curriculum developers and policy makers. Australian Government, Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.

Fleer, M. (1998). What is environmental education? Every Child , 4 (4).
Kershaw, K. (2013). Week 3: Sustainability [Study Notes]. Social and Environmental Education 1 .

University of Canberra.
Miettinen, R. (2000). The concept of experiential learning and John Dewey’s theory of reflective

thought and action. International Journal of Lifelong Education , 19 (1), 54-72.
Reynolds, R. (2012). Teaching History, Geography & SOSE in the Primary School. South Melbourne:

Oxford University Press.

Tarlinton, D. (2003). Blooms Revised Taxonomy [Week 10 Handout]. Retrieved from Social and Environmental Education 1: http://www.kurwongbss.eq.edu.au/thinking/Bloom/blooms.htm\

UNESCO. (2008). The contribution of early childhood education to a sustainable society. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Paris: UNESCO.

Friday, April 6th, 2013: Movie List (Autism Spectrum Disorders)

Autism spectrum disorders

Monday, April 1st, 2013: Autism Awareness Month

Today is the first day of Autism Awareness Month. I never knew this before. To me, the only thing important about April was April Fools Day. It now means something very important and close to my heart. I didn’t grow up knowing people with Autism, nor did I know what Autism really was. Now in my early 30’s I know about Autism, and how it comes in many varieties. Autism is considered to be a syndrome underneath a spectrum umbrella. Under this umbrella you have severe autistic people who can’t communicate and find everyday tasks to be extremely difficult without help, and then you have the people who fall underneath the other end of the spectrum and have High Functioning Autism or Asperger’s Syndrome. These people lay unnoticed in the public eye in regards to disability but find life very difficult in certain aspects because they are DIFFERENT. The issues aren’t easily seen because they are neurological. This is why people who do NOT fall under these categories are considered “NORMAL” or “Neuro- TYPICALS”, because the people who have Autism Spectrum Disorders are considered NON-NEURO-TYPICAL or “not normal”.

asperger-under-asd-umbrella

Lots of people are now more aware of Autism and Autism Education, but Asperger’s Syndrome is still considered to be unknown within the realm of awareness and education. I’ve researched and found that there are many books and experts within this subject field, but the fact remains that it’s still an untouched subject. As an education student myself, I’ve been taught to be aware of differences and to accommodate for students needs, but that’s it. I haven’t been explained the details needed in order to fully accommodate students of this kind. I believe that partly it is because a) it is assumed that a student that requires more help than the average student would be placed in a special class anyway; and b) because there isn’t enough information out there about Asperger’s Syndrome and how to interact with someone with it.

Last year, I learned that I have Asperger’s Syndrome. This came as a complete shock to me as I never was given an inkling as to having anything like it before. I knew I was different. I knew I was an acquired taste, but never thought it went deeper than intellect and taste. I grew up not knowing what Autism was, and later only learned that people who suffered from Asperger’s Syndrome had a hard time understanding facial expressions and appeared cold because they couldn’t reflect their emotions. I now know that these assumptions are extreme and in most cases, wrong. I had thought to myself, this doesn’t apply to me. I’ve performed in front of hundreds of people. I’ve sung, acted. I’ve had relationships, I can smile, laugh, cry, appear sad, worried; and I know what all those emotions look like. This does not apply to me. And then I began to research. I discovered that Asperger’s Syndrome doesn’t just mean that. As all syndromes/disorders underneath the Autism Spectrum, there’s a spectrum of traits that fall under Asperger’s. But not only that, there’s almost a completely different set of traits that falls under the category for females with the syndrome. The more I researched, the more I resigned to the idea of having Asperger’s Syndrome. Soon, I felt relief from having the answer to all of my life’s problems. That’s why I do that. That’s why people react that way towards what I did or do. Now it makes sense. And in a way, instead of feeling like I was given a sentence, I felt I was saved. I was saved from living a life in the unknown. Not understanding why things didn’t work out the way I thought they should, or why people didn’t react to me the way I’d like them to. Now understanding and knowing what I do and how I naturally react to things and circumstances, I am able to make efforts in changing or accepting the outcomes.

img244154ad237783e339

My diagnosis has become my saviour. Almost a year later, I still meet people who are unwilling to accept my diagnosis. I understand, and don’t argue. I know that it was important for me to know, as it has helped me move forward positively in life, school, and relationships. I believe that I have now fully accepted and come to terms with it. This is why I’ve chosen to publicly come out with it. I have Asperger’s Syndrome. So for this month onwards, I don’t require Autism awareness from you, I’d be happy with Autism acceptance. Accept me for who I am, despite my Aspie differences.

i_dont_need_autism_awareness

For more information about Asperger’s Syndrome, please visit these links:

http://www.tonyattwood.com.au/index.php/about-aspergers

http://www.asperger.asn.au/

http://www.tonyattwood.com.au/index.php/about-aspergers/girls-and-women-who-have-aspergers

http://www.help4aspergers.com/

http://aspergersgirls.wordpress.com/2012/02/10/aspergers-traits-women-females-girls/

About Testing:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3134766/

http://www.wrongplanet.net/postt188190.html

http://www.wrongplanet.net/postxf164094-0-0.html&sid=5d89caae5c6d4c35928d9345f1d05944

http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs10803-010-1133-5

http://www.science20.com/countering_tackling_woo/autism_diagnostic_scales_sometimes_number_just_number-91498

This is one of the tests a doctor would use in diagnosing someone with Asperger’s Syndrome. Take the test online yourself.

(If you and a close friend/relative of yours takes the test (about you) and rates a 65 or higher, then it is a good indicator for a diagnosis.)

http://www.aspietests.org/userdetails.php?target=raads/index.php

For more information, please visit my video playlist.

What is Asperger’s Syndrome?

Children with Asperger’s syndrome have the following characteristics:

  • Delayed social maturity and social reasoning.
  • Difficulty making friends and often teased by other children.
  • Difficulty with the communication and control of emotions.
  • Unusual language abilities that include advanced vocabulary and syntax but delayed conversation skills, unusual prosody and a tendency to be pedantic.
  • A fascination with a topic that is unusual in intensity or focus.
  • An unusual profile of learning abilities.
  • A need for assistance with some self-help and organizational skills.
  • Clumsiness in terms of gait and coordination.
  • Sensitivity to specific sounds, aromas, textures or touch.

Characteristics of Asperger’s Syndrome

Theory of Mind

  • Effects of impaired Theory of Mind abilities in daily life
    • Difficulties reading the messages in someone’s eyes.
    • A tendency to make a literal interpretation of what someone says.
    • A tendency to be considered disrespectful and rude.
    • Remarkable honesty.
    • Delay in the development of the art of persuasion, compromise and conflict resolution.
    • A different form of introspection and self-consciousness.
    • Problems knowing when something may cause embarrassment.
    • A longer time to process social information, due to using intelligence rather than intuition.
    • Physical and emotional exhaustion from socializing.

The Understanding and Expression of Emotions

  • The emotional maturity of children with Asperger’s syndrome is usually at least three years behind that of their peers.
  • There can be a limited vocabulary to describe emotions and a lack of subtlety and variety in emotional expression.
  • There is an association between Asperger’s syndrome and the development of an additional or secondary mood disorder, including depression, anxiety disorder, and problems with anger management and the communication of love and affection.
  • People with Asperger’s syndrome appear vulnerable to feeling depressed, with about one in three children and adults with Asperger’s syndrome having a clinical depression.
  • We do not know how common anger management problems are with children and adults with Asperger’s syndrome, but we do know that when problems with the expression of anger occur, the person with Asperger’s syndrome and family members are very keen to reduce the frequency, intensity and consequences of anger.
  • A person with Asperger’s syndrome may enjoy a very brief and low intensity expression of affection, and become confused or overwhelmed when greater levels of expression are experienced or expected.
  • The emotion management for children and adults with Asperger’s syndrome can be conceptualized as a problem with ‘energy management’, namely, an excessive amount of emotional energy and difficulty controlling and releasing the energy constructively.

Special Interests

  • One of the distinguishing characteristics between a hobby and a special interest that is of clinical significance is an abnormality in the intensity or focus of the interest.
  • Unusual or special interests can develop as early as age two to three years and may commence with a preoccupation with parts of objects such as spinning the wheels of toy cars, or manipulating electrical switches.
  • The next stage may be a fixation on something neither human nor toy, or a fascination with a specific category of objects and the acquisition of as many examples as possible.
  • A subsequent stage can be the collection of facts and figures about a specific topic.
  • Much of the knowledge associated with the interest is self-directed and self-taught.
  • In the pre-teenage and teenage years the interests can evolve to include electronics and computers, fantasy literature, science fiction and sometimes a fascination with a particular person.
  • There appear to be two main categories of interest: collections, and the acquisition of knowledge on a specific topic or concept.
  • Some girls with Asperger’s syndrome can develop a special interest in fiction rather than facts.
  • Sometimes the special interest is animals but can be to such an intensity that the child acts being the animal.
  • The special interest has several functions:
    1. To overcome anxiety.
    2. To provide pleasure.
    3. To provide relaxation.
    4. To ensure greater predictability and certainty in life.
    5. To help understand the physical world.
    6. To create an alternative world.
    7. To create a sense of identity.
    8. To facilitate conversation and indicate intellectual ability.
  • The interest can be a source of enjoyment, knowledge, self-identity and self-esteem that can be constructively used by parents, teachers and therapists.
  • When one considers the attributes associated with the special interests, it is important to consider not only the benefits to the person with Asperger’s syndrome, but also the benefits to society.

Cognitive Abilities

  • Some young children with Asperger’s syndrome start school with academic abilities above their grade level.
  • There seem to be more children with Asperger’s syndrome than one might expect at the extremes of cognitive ability.
  • Profile of learning abilities at school
    • At school, teachers soon recognize that the child has a distinctive learning style, being talented in understanding the logical and physical world, noticing details and remembering and arranging facts in a systematic fashion.
    • Children with Asperger’s syndrome can be easily distracted, especially in the classroom. When problem solving, they appear to have a ‘one-track mind’ and a fear of failure.
    • As the child progresses through the school grades, teachers identify problems with organizational abilities, especially with regard to homework assignments and essays.
    • If the child with Asperger’s syndrome is not successful socially at school, then academic success becomes more important as the primary motivation to attend school and for the development of self-esteem.

Movement and Coordination

  • There is an impression of clumsiness in at least 60 per cent of children with Asperger’s syndrome, but several studies using specialized assessment procedures have indicated that specific expressions of movement disturbance occur in almost all children with Asperger’s syndrome.
  • When walking or running, the child’s coordination can be immature, and adults with Asperger’s syndrome may have a strange, sometimes idiosyncratic gait that lacks fluency and efficiency.
  • Some children with Asperger’s syndrome can be immature in the development of the ability to catch, throw and kick a ball.
  • Poorly planned movement and slower mental preparation time may be a more precise description than simply being clumsy.
  • Teachers and parents can become quite concerned about difficulties with handwriting.
  • The movement disturbance does not appear to affect some sporting activities such as swimming, using the trampoline, playing golf and horse riding.

Sensory Sensitivity

  • Some adults with Asperger’s syndrome consider their sensory sensitivity has a greater impact on their daily lives than problems with making friends, managing emotions and finding appropriate employment.
  • The most common sensitivity is to very specific sounds but there can also be sensitivity to tactile experiences, light intensity, the taste and texture of food and specific aromas. There can be an under or over reaction to the experience of pain and discomfort, and the sense of balance, movement perception and body orientation can be unusual.
  • The child with sensory sensitivity becomes hypervigilant, tense and distractible in sensory stimulating environments such as the classroom, unsure when the next painful sensory experience will occur.
  • We know that the signs are more conspicuous in early childhood and gradually diminish during adolescence, but can remain a lifelong characteristic for some adults with Asperger’s syndrome.

https://www.facebook.com/pages/Aspergers-Awareness/351469834953079# 

Friday, February 15th, 2013: Arts Education Report (DISTINCTION)

Received a (75–84% (Distinction) for the unit.

Arts Education Report (500 words)

Student Number & Name Kimi Year of Student Year 4
Student Visual Arts Report (500 words)Kimi showed extreme interest and enthusiasm in her art workshops. She achieved year-level outcomes for appreciating the use of particular artistic techniques and identifying connections between artworks. Kimi displays increased confidence and artistic skill development through her emotional response using colour and line; and her participation in printmaking, exceeding the task outcome by creating two stencils, and three prints.Kimi experienced tactile hesitation towards using charcoal for the first time, and while the task wasn’t mandatory, managed to overcome her discomfort and finish the drawing exercise later at her own pace. While having prior knowledge in painting and drawing, her colour mixing skills in creating values and tones are beginning to show progress; her drawing skills showed no significant progress but with practice should improve.

Kimi has satisfactorily completed all visual art tasks during the duration of the workshops and demonstrates an awareness of visual art concepts, including presentation, through drawing/painting/colour mixing/printing/ceramic activities.

Key Learning Areas/Outcomes

Stage 2:

  • VAS2.2 – Uses the forms to suggest the qualities of subject matter (NSW, 2006).
  • Experimented with techniques in painting, drawing, printmaking and ceramics to create effects.
    • VAS2.4 – Identifies connections between subject matter in artworks and what they refer to, and appreciates the use of particular techniques (NSW, 2006).
    • Identifies resemblances between subject matter in artworks and the features of things as they exist in the world, recognising similarities and differences in how things are represented in the artworks

Years 3-4:

  • They will learn to present their work for others to view, and to understand that presentations (including exhibitions) have a purpose (ACARA Australian Curriculum, 2011).
  • Students will develop skills as they consciously start to experiment with equipment, materials, media and technologies (ACARA Australian Curriculum, 2011)

Late Childhood:

  • 7.LC.3 – learns about traditions and techniques associated with different artistic works in the visual arts (e.g. drawing, painting, printmaking, sculpture) (ACT, 2007).
  • 7.LC.6 – learns to explore different materials, techniques and processes to make 2D and 3D artistic works (ACT, 2007).
  • 7.LC.12 – learns to interpret and respond to a range of artistic works, identifying some of the skills, elements and techniques used to create meanings and giving reasons for their interpretations and preferences (ACT, 2007).
Research Justification (350 words)Darby (2013) says that writing reports “should be a positive experience”. I agree and will begin by stating that in my opinion ‘interest’ and ‘enthusiasm’ create ‘engagement’. This is important to note in report writing because as Eisner (1998) states “engagement with the arts helps young people become more aware of multiple perspectives”, and offers students “different ways of looking at things” which “opens up the way to learn respect for other people’s views” (Eisner, 1998). These views also help students to express opinions about how art is represented in particular forms and aids them to “appreciate the skills involved to achieve these effects” (NSW, 2006). This report has commented on skills that needed improvement. Collins stated “the trick to report writing is to write the anti-report, and then reword it in a politically correct way” (2012); which is what I’ve tried to do. This idea is backed by Darby who said that the most important to keep in mind is “that reporting is as much about improving future performance as it is about commenting on past achievements” (Darby, 2013). The Department of Education and Training in ACT adds that “the key purpose of reporting is to support student learning by providing information to students and parents or carers about student achievement and progress and to indicate areas for further development” (ACT, 2007), and I’ve tried to do just that.A difficult task in writing this report that I’ve encountered was finding a way to fit in specific language, and all key learning areas within a short word count. I decided to report on the most significant areas and to use simple language. I did this so that the report would be readable by anyone, because “teachers must ensure that…reports are understandable to students and parents” (ACT, 2007). And finally, I think most importantly, the report is based on key learning areas for a Year 4 student in visual arts. Almost everything I commented on is based on a specific KLA (as can be seen in the chart above). For instance I referred to ‘particular artistic techniques and identifying connections between artworks’; this is directly correlated to “VAS2.2 – Uses the forms to suggest the qualities of subject matter” (NSW, 2006); and “VAS2.4 – Identifies connections between subject matter in artworks and what they refer to, and appreciates the use of particular techniques” (NSW, 2006).
References (minimum of 4 academic references)ACARA Australian Curriculum, A. a. (2011). Shape of the Australian Curriculum: The Arts. Retrieved February 15th, 2013 from Australian Curriculum: http://www.acara.edu.au/verve/_resources/Shape_of_the_Australian_Curriculum_The_Arts_-_Compressed.pdfACT, Department of Education and Training. (2007). Every chance to learn: Curriculum Framework for ACT Schools: Preschool to Year 10. Stirling, ACT: ACT Dept. of Education and Training.

Collins, A. (2012). Week 6: Intro Seminar. [Lecture Notes]. Unit 8915 Arts Education. University of Canberra

Darby, D. M. (2013). Student Reports Checklist. Retrieved February 15th, 2013 from Artseducationguru.com: http://artseducationguru.com/student-reports-checklist/

Eisner, E. (1998). Does experience in the arts boost academic achievement? Journal of Art and Design Education, 17 (1), 51-60.

NSW, Board of Studies. (2006). Creative Arts K-6 Syllabus. Retrieved February 15th, 2013 from http://k6.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/files/arts/k6_creative_arts_syl.pdf

Arts Education Statement (500 words): “Arts Education is an essential part of a well rounded education.”

The role of arts education fits many needs within a well-rounded education. Arts education is an essential part of curriculum because “it helps create well-rounded people” (Collins, 2012); it links to Key Learning Areas and helps to engage students in learning (Collins, 2012); it “nurtures the importance of having passions” (Collins, 2012) and is a positive outlet (Collins, 2012).

Drama is a collaborative process in which participants use their “critical thinking abilities, verbal and non-verbal communication skills, and empathic responses” (Poston-Anderson, 2007) through imitation “make believe, and social interaction with real and imaginary others” (Koster, 2009). The National Dance Education Organization (2013) categorises dance as a “basic form of cultural expression” (NDEO, 2013) that “integrates kinesthetic learning with understanding” (NDEO, 2013). Payne (1992) suggests that dance is especially appropriate for children with language, communication, or learning difficulties. Visual arts education builds visual perception, nurtures creative thinking (Koster, 2009). Visual Arts can also “externalize ideas, feelings and beliefs, and convey meanings and messages” (Wright, 1997) that are otherwise difficult to. Music education creates “the development of attitudes and behaviours that promote school performance” (McCarthy, 2004) where students learn how to collaborate with others, accept constructive criticism and develop a sense of self-efficacy (McCarthy, 2004). Music helps stimulate brain growth, well being (Koster, 2009) and develops self-discipline, understanding of consequences, and teamwork, “skills that promote success in life as well as school” (McCarthy, 2004). Music education benefits also stem from the planning and practice required preparing for a performance and “activities that depend on teamwork and trust” (McCarthy, 2004).

The arts education “improves attitudes and skills that promote the learning process”, “particularly the ability to learn how to learn” as well as increases school attendance and interest in school (McCarthy, 2004, p. 8). Studies show students who participate in arts education outperform academically “arts poor students by virtually every measure” (Dinham, 2011) and that “sustained involvement in particular art forms” is highly correlated with success in mathematics and reading and significant positive effects on learning in other domains” (Dinham, 2011) as well. “The arts allow perception, awareness, judgment and the expression of ideas to occur in ways that are not purely linguistic or mathematical, as in reading, writing, science and technology study” (Wright, 1997). Arts education also enhances basic life skills “such as grades and test scores” (Dinham, 2011), communication skills and increases self-esteem and confidence (Arts, 2004). A recent study by The Australia Council for the Arts (2010) stated that the one individual benefit of the arts was intellectual growth, “exposing us to new ideas and getting us to question things” (Arts, 2010).

I feel it is important for arts education to be integrated in the school curriculum for many reasons, that benefit the student and the community (Koster, 2009) as it offers “a significant educational contribution to a child’s development and future role in society” (Dinham, 2011). When the arts are taught well, students are engaged in learning (Eisner, 1998) and they “begin to make connections to the social and cultural world beyond the school” and are “able to understand the importance of social responsibility”; develop emotional intelligence and express their feelings in a coherent way and therefore are sensitive to the feelings of others (Eisner, 1998).

References

ACARA Australian Curriculum, A. a. (2011). Shape of the Australian Curriculum: The Arts. Retrieved February 15th, 2013 from Australian Curriculum: http://www.acara.edu.au/verve/_resources/Shape_of_the_Australian_Curriculum_The_Arts_-_Compressed.pdf

ACT, D. o. (2007). Every chance to learn: Curriculum Framework for ACT Schools: Preschool to Year 10. Stirling, ACT: ACT Dept. of Education and Training.

Arts, A. C. (2004). Education and the Arts Strategy 2004-2007. Sydney: Australia Council for the Arts.

Arts, A. C. (2010). More than Bums on Seats: Australian Participation in the Arts. Sydney: Australia Council for the Arts.

Collins, A. (2012). Week 6: Intro Seminar. [Lecture Notes]. Unit 8915 Arts Education .

Darby, D. M. (2013). Student Reports Checklist. Retrieved February 15th, 2013 from Artseducationguru.com: http://artseducationguru.com/student-reports-checklist/

Dinham, J. (2011). Delivering authentic arts education: visual arts, drama, music, dance, media. South Melbourne, VIC: Cengage Learning.

Eisner, E. (1998). Does experience in the arts boost academic achievement? Journal of Art and Design Education , 17 (1), 51-60.

Koster, J. (2009). Growing Artists: Teaching the Arts to Young Children (4th Edition). New York: Delmar Publishing.

McCarthy, K. Z. (2004). Gifts of the muse: Reframing the debate about the benefits of the arts. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.

NDEO. (2013). Philosophy, Early Childhood Standards. Retrieved February 1st, 2013 from National Dance Education Organization: http://www.ndeo.org/content.aspx?page_id=22&club_id=893257&module_id=55419

NSW, B. o. (2006). Creative Arts K-6 Syllabus. Retrieved February 15th, 2013 from http://k6.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/files/arts/k6_creative_arts_syl.pdf

Payne, H. (1992). Dance Movement Therapy: Theory and Practice. Tavistock: Routledge.

Poston-Anderson, B. (2007). Drama: Learning Connections in Primary Schools. Australia & New Zealand: Oxford University Press.

Wright, S. (1997). Learning how to learn the arts as core in an emergent curriculum. Childhood Education , 16 (8), 361-365.

Thursday, February 14th 2013: Happy Valentine’s Day!!!

7152 Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL)

Assessment 2: Scenario Report (Option 1)

An action plan with reccommendations based on critical reflection and research

By Kimberly Hall

 

Introduction

The focus of this report is to address how to create an inclusive integrated unit on ‘food and food preparation’ this upcoming term for all of our students, including those English language learners (ELL) from Muslim, Jehovah Witness, Indian, Chinese, and Anglo backgrounds. Our goal is to create an action plan that will ensure that our students feel comfortable, welcome, and have the confidence to pursue their English learning in a safe and inclusive environment, while having their needs met. I know this sounds like a tall order, but given the researched recommendations provided in this report to support our actions, we will persevere triumphantly.

Intercultural Understanding

Before we can meet our students’ needs, we need to know who our students are; what their first language is, what their cultural background is, what their religion and practices are, and if they are Australian born, migrants or refugees. “Each of us has different ‘cultural layers’…our cultural identities are historically and geographically determined. Culture and our cultural identity are constantly changing” (Adoniou, 2012b). And it is our duty to obtain depth of knowledge in these areas in order to attain a truly inclusive unit. We cannot expect our students to listen with respect about a foreign language or someone else’s culture (ACARA Australian Curriculum, 2013c), if we do not give value to their own as well. It is absolutely imperative that we include the cultural identities of all our students. “When modeling examples of activities do not always use the default position of white urban Australia” (Adoniou, 2012b) because that would erase our efforts in connecting with our students. We need to achieve Intercultural Understanding (IU) in order to “participate and negotiate with people in a variety of social and cultural contexts” (Adoniou, 2012b). This is why I feel it is important to begin with what the Australian Curriculum calls the Intercultural Understanding Learning Continuum (ACARA Australian Curriculum, 2013b).  Adoniou states that this is a three-tiered view of developing IU. She lists them as Recognition, Interaction, and Reflection (Adoniou, 2012a). By adopting this learning continuum our ELLs will know and understand their culture, another’s culture and have the skill to work between them (Adoniou, 2012b). Within the Recognition view, we should acknowledge the differences and similarities amongst us, both in and out of the classroom (Adoniou, 2012a). We can accomplish this by holding discussions with the students about where they come from and maybe look at a map and point those places out. We can then transition the discussion into what foods are eaten in their households, and then use a smart board and investigate and explore more about those foods and how they are prepared and compare them to different cultures (ACARA Australian Curriculum, 2013c).

The second tier in the IU tool is Interaction, where we can explore those “similarities and differences through contact with those cultures” (Adoniou, 2012a). We can accomplish this by having the students bring in pictures and items from home related to: food and food preparation, or special celebrations where food is involved. We also should invite parents, local community, and staff members to come in and share their information, objects, recipes, and cooking skills with the students. This will help students to empathise with others as well as offer multiple perspectives across cultures (ACARA Australian Curriculum, 2013a). They can do this by providing a baking lesson on a type of bread from their own cultural background. These actions will be key in proving that all cultural backgrounds eat and make their own types of bread, which makes us all similar, but that also “bread is made and eaten differently throughout the world” (Adoniou, 2012a), which also makes us different. The final tier, Reflection, can be accomplished through discussion and student response writing about the “new knowledge gained about cultures” (Adoniou, 2012a). This helps the students “reflect on intercultural experiences” and “mediate cultural difference” (ACARA Australian Curriculum, 2013d). A great follow-up to the baking lessons would be to create a procedural text, like a bread recipe book, with the students. This book can be created individually, or as a class project; and should include recipes from different cultures, including those of the students involved. Students can have family members who did not participate in the baking lessons provide home recipes to include in the class project. This way all students are able to make the project their own. Creating this connection for the students is critical in obtaining engagement which Cambourne (1995) states as an outcome of two of his Conditions of Learning: Demonstration and Immersion.

Engagement is achieved when our students are convinced that they themselves can also bake these recipes, write the recipes, and share the newly learned cultural knowledge with confidence (Cambourne, 1995). These activities will help strengthen the identity of our students by “making difference normal” and “having learning environments which are ‘spacious’ enough to allow everyone to be who they are” (Adoniou, 2012b).

Considerations & Difficulties

Student Participation

Hertzberg (2012) observes that it is “important that mainstream teachers encourage the use of L1 in the classroom as L1 remains a crucial resource for L2 learning”. We need to remember to encourage our students to use their L1. “Competence in the home language(s) helps students to learn subsequent languages. This is why teachers need to find out about the child’s competency in the first language (L1) and always support the maintenance of L1 because learning English in an English-speaking schooling context is different from learning a foreign language…” (Hertzberg, 2012). This can be addressed by having the students use their L1 to name the different types of bread or the names of ingredients. These words and their English counterparts should be posted on the wall in the classroom as a visual text display and a reminder to our students that we value their linguistic differences, aid the visual learners, and to help develop literacy skills in both their L1 and English (Gibbons, 2002). This is vital in helping our ELLs because as Hertzberg notes that “Students about ten years or older should be able to learn another language” more quickly because often it is just a matter of transferring the many fundamental conceptual understandings already learnt in L1 into language two (L2)”  (2012). But not all of our students have come to us with the prior knowledge of vocabulary or “linguistic structures” in their L1 (Hertzberg, 2012). We need to consider this fact in all our programming and make adjustments where need be.

Family Participation

In order to include our students’ family members to partake in our baking project we need to send an invitation home asking for any volunteers to share an afternoon with us. We’d ask for them to share some of their cultural background knowledge with us by way of stories, baking lesson, and/or discussion on food preparation and typical dishes from their culture.

Limitations

Due to the many cultural and religious, not to mention allergy, restrictions on food it is best to steer clear of peanuts and meats. A note should be sent home stating that the students will be participating in baking breads at school and if there are any food restrictions that we are unaware of that they should contact us. We need to take into account the different daily practices of our students and their families (Adoniou, 2012b), and note that some families may not want their children to take part in the baking process. The note should also reflect the decision to only cook vegetarian items and to not include peanuts. There should be some consideration in possibly illuminating the use of gluten, dairy, and egg as well for some allergy and anaphylactic sufferers. For further information regarding specific religious and cultural food limitations please see APPENDIX 1.

“Breads Around The World”: Unit Recommendations

The Curriculum Cycle

The focus of the unit should be on bread recipes, bread making and preparation, and procedural writing of recipes. The purpose of the unit is to create expand knowledge of bread, develop vocabulary, develop an understanding of procedural writing structures, and create IU by sharing of cultural and prior knowledge with one another. Consider using the “Breads Around The World” theme to address subjects like History, Maths, Science, Art, IT, as well as English. For History allow “all children to share their experiences of how the past in their country/experiences differs from the present” (Adoniou, 2012b) in regards to the preparation of bread. For Science & Maths bring ingredients to class and ask each student to shop for the ingredients to make their own bread, and then have them measure out ingredients into bowls and mix them. For IT take photos of the project process and create a blog or booklet for the children to take home (Wing Jan, 2001). And for SOSE we can arrange class trips to local cultural food locations like a Halal butcher, an Asian grocer, or a Jewish Deli. I recommend that we utilize the mode continuum of Scaffolding Literacy and build our programming around The Curriculum Cycle in order to better engage our L1 learners (Hyde, 2012c). The following is an example on how to follow this cycle with the “Breads Around The World” theme.

Build The Field

Hold a discussion on different cultural foods and then guide it towards bread. A quick Google search online can bring up many different bread images for the children to view and discuss. The book “The Little Red Hen” can then be used to discuss the processes in which bread is made. Be sure to find a copy of the book that describes the processes in how the bread is made (e.g. sifting, kneading, baking, cutting), because there are different versions.

Deconstructing and Modelling

Have a family member instruct a baking lesson on a cultural bread of their own and guide the students with appropriate procedural language like “now we pour the oil into the bowl” and ” the next step is to…” This will scaffold the children when it comes time to analyse the recipe procedures (Wing Jan, 2001).

Joint Construction

“Jointly construct a simple recipe making sure to include the appropriate structures and features” that were just analysed in the last lesson (Wing Jan, 2001). This can be done on a smart or white board. Wing Jan (2001) suggests using a class data chart to document the learning, which can be added onto in future terms with other types of procedural texts (if we should decide to continue with this type). For an example please see APPENDIX 2.

Individual Construction

“Discuss the need to write clear, easy-to-follow and logically sequenced instructions” (Wing Jan, 2001).

The children can then write their own bread recipe of their choosing following the procedural structures learned in the last lesson (Wing Jan, 2001). “As a particular skill from any subject is taught, a chart or booklet can be written to remind the children of the process” (Wing Jan, 2001).

Assessment

Assessment can be informal by way of interview to observe if the student can identify the basic structure of a recipe, or uses action verbs at the beginning of most steps. A formal assessment can be to create a “breads around the world” recipe book individually or as a class using the appropriate structures of procedural text properly, or a wall display of student written recipes (Wing Jan, 2001).

Conclusion

This report concludes with these 4 simple recommended guidelines to fulfil an integrated unit on ‘food and food preparation’ action plan. 1. It is important for us to create IU for the benefit of out students. This will help them gain confidence to learn new skills and share their prior knowledge. 2. We should always consider the cultural differences in daily practices of our students and their families but remember to find ways to make all our activities inclusive so that no one is left out. 3. Send notes home to invite families to take part in our projects and to advise them of any foods or preparation of foods related to the project, which may offend or concern them. 4. Create engaging programming that values the cultural identities of all who are involved and be clear to administer appropriate concern and care with all personal knowledge gained about our students so that our students will feel safe and have their needs met. If we follow these simple guidelines our unit this term will be inclusive, integrated and meaningful for all.

Bibliography

ACARA Australian Curriculum, A. a. (2013a). Intercultural Understanding: Interacting and empathising with others. Retrieved February 13th, 2013, from http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/GeneralCapabilities/Intercultural-understanding/Organising-elements/Interacting-and-empathising-with-others

ACARA Australian Curriculum, A. a. (2013b). Intercultural Understanding: Organising elements. Retrieved February 13th, 2013, from http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/GeneralCapabilities/Intercultural-understanding/Organising-elements/Organising-elements

ACARA Australian Curriculum, A. a. (2013c). Intercultural Understanding: Recognising culture and developing respect. Retrieved February 13th, 2013, from : http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/GeneralCapabilities/Intercultural-understanding/Organising-elements/Recognising-culture-and-developing-respect

ACARA Australian Curriculum, A. a. (2013d). Intercultural Understanding: Reflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility. Retrieved February 13th, 2013, from http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/GeneralCapabilities/Intercultural-understanding/Organising-elements/Reflecting-on-intercultural-experiences-and-taking-responsibility

Adoniou, M. (2012a). Recognition, Interaction, Reflection. Unit 7152 Teaching English as a Second Language: Semester 2, 2012. [Tutorial Handout] . University of Canberra.

Adoniou, M. (2012b). Week 5: Cultural Awareness. Unit 7152 Teaching English as a Second Language: Semester 2, 2012. [Lecture Notes] . University of Canberra.

Cambourne, B. (1995). Toward An Educationally Relevant Theory Of Literacy Learning: Twenty Years Of Inquiry. The Reading Teacher , 49 (3).

Gibbons, P. (2002). Scaffolding Language, Scaffolding Learning. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Hertzberg, M. (2012). Teaching English Language Learners in Mainstream Classes. Primary English Teaching Association Australia (PETAA).

Hyde, F. (2012a). Week 2 Lecture: What is TESL? Unit 7152 Teaching English as a Second Language: Semester 2, 2012. [Powerpoint Slides] , 21. University of Canberra.

Hyde, F. (2012b). Week 2-3: Lecture Notes. Unit 7152 Teaching English as a Second Language: Semester 2, 2012. [Lecture Notes] . University of Canberra.

Hyde, F. (2012c). Week 7 & 10 Tutorials. Unit 7152 Teaching English as a Second Language: Semester 2, 2012. [Tutorial Handout] . University of Canberra.

Wing Jan, L. (2001). Procedural Texts. In Write Ways: Modelling Writing Forms (2nd Edition) (pp. 63-73). South Melbourne, VIC: Oxford University Press.